What is Frame Relay | 2 layers, Advantages, and Disadvantages?

Friends, during this post today, we’ll know what is Frame Relay? How does it work-study its advantages and drawbacks and discuss the concepts?

Frame Relay

This is a wide area network (WAN) protocol that works on Layer 1 and Layer 2 of the open system interconnection (OSI Model).

In this, the value is reduced by using fewer tools, easier implementation, and fewer complexity, albeit, Leased Connections for a client it’s possible to realize High Bandwidth, Reliability and more flexibility as compared.

The frame is a Packet-Switching Telecommunication Service designed for Cost-Efficient Data Transmission for Intermittent Traffic between Endpoints in Local Area networks (LAN) and Wide Area networks (WAN).

Frame Relay transfers data to a Variable-Size unit called a frame and leaves any necessary error correction to the endpoints, which accelerates overall data transmission.

Frame relay is usually wont to connect local area networks (LAN) with T-1 lines on major backbones also as on Public Wide Area networks (WAN) and Private Network Environments with the lease.

It is also safer because rather than sending data over the general public Internet, it’s sent to the Private VC Network. This technology is usually employed by Large Corporations today, so that data is often sent to different LAN premises at a high level and securely.

Various key features of this protocol are as follows:-

  • The call control packets are used for fixing and clearing virtual circuits.
  • In-band signaling is employed.
  • Multiplexing of virtual circuits takes place at layer 3.
  • Layer 2 and three include flow control and error control.

Characteristics of Frame Relay

  • Frame is a service that supports Data Transport.
  • This is a Connectionless service, which suggests that each data packet passing through the network contains the address information.
  • This is a service that gives speeds starting from 56 Kb to 25 Mbs.
  • Frame Relay is taken into account a broadband ISDN service.
  • It also supports variable-size data packets.
  • It only works within the physical and link layers. Therefore it is often easily used on the web.
  • It can only detect the error (At link Layer) but no Flow Control or Error Control.

Frame Format

  • Frame Format utilized in Frame Relay
  • The DLCI length is 10 bits
  • There are two EA locations. the worth of the primary one is fixed at 0 and therefore the second at
  • 1 is about within the DE (Discard Eligibility) for the part which will be discarded first when congestion occurs
  • the info size may vary up to 4096 bytes.

Frame relay layers

It has only 2 layers of Physical Layer and Link Layer:-

  • Physical layer
  • Datalink layer
Physical layer:-
  • Frame relay supports ANSI Standards.
  • No specific protocol has been defined for the Physical Layer. The user can use any protocol that’s recognized by ANSI.
Datalink layer:-
  • A simplified version of HDLC is used by frame relay on the info Link Layer.
  • A Simplified Version is utilized because Frame Relay doesn’t require Flow Control and Error Correction.

What is the necessity for frame relay in networking?

Frame relay is getting used within the network for several reasons. Some important reasons are as follows that allow us to discuss these points one by one.

Higher Data Rates:-
  • It allows the transfer of Bursty Data.
  • If LANs located at physically distant locations are to be interconnected, two options are available to try to do so. Interconnect them using the T lines and Interconnect using the frame relay
  • The frame relay network can handle data rates up to T-3 transmission i.e. 44.376 Mbps.
Can handle bursty data:-
  • The info being sent from a source to a destination isn’t of a continuous/constant nature.
  • Instead it’s bursty in nature. meaning an outsized amount of knowledge (data burst) is shipped suddenly, then for some time, there’s little or no or no data.
  • The T-lines aren’t equipped to handle such bursty data because they provide a continuous rate.
  • The frame relay can tackle this problem. It supports a minimum average rate and may handle the bursty data.
Lower overheads:-
  • In the frame relay network, there are not any acknowledgments sent from the switches back to the sender.
  • There’s no intermediate error check. The error checking takes place only at the destination.
  • The host/switch doesn’t keep a replica of the packet forwarded to subsequent host/switch. this protects tons of memory space of the hosts and switches.
  • All this causes reduced overheads.

Advantages of Frame Relay

The main advantage of frame relay is that it’s a packet-switching technology. Packet switching networks send data from source to destination supported by each packet’s unique destination address.

Once the info is packetized, it is often statistically multiplexed. Statistical multiplexing allows many subscribers to share an equivalent bandwidth by assuming that not all subscribers are going to be using the bandwidth at an equivalent time.

This avoids high-cost, point-to-point connections like dedicated leased lines that employ circuit switching. Leased lines are expensive because they’re rented and dedicated for exclusive use 24-hours each day, seven days every week. With leased lines, subscribers buy bandwidth Previous screen whether it’s getting used or not.

Statistical multiplexing provides multiple data connections through the network simultaneously, and no single customer pays for exclusive privileges.

This leads to a big cost advantage over circuit-switched networks. The second advantage of Frame relay is that its variable-length frames and its low overhead provide excellent network throughput and low delay of knowledge. The variable-length frames allow Frame relay to encapsulate protocols well.

This is protocol-independent, so its payload can carry a spread of higher-layer LAN protocols, like the Internet protocol (IP). Because the network doesn’t concern itself with error correction and flow control, overhead within the frame relay network is low. Therefore, the network uses most of its resources to switch user data.

Frame relay realizes another advantage through the committed information rate (CIR). The Committed Information Rates represents the info traffic level that the network plans to support under typical network conditions; it’s prescribed by the service provider and the subscriber.

The advantage of a Committed Information Rates for the customer is that once it’s prescribed, the service provider should be capable of transmitting at or below the CIR. for instance, if a mean of 56K-bps throughput is required between two sites, then the CIR should be adequate to or greater than 56Kbps.

Typically, data traffic sent below the CIR passes through the network at a high priority, and data sent in more than the CIR features a lower priority. This low-priority traffic is that the first to be dropped when subscribers create network congestion. The CIR is the idea of a well-planned network also as a billing mechanism.

Finally, Frame relay has worldwide industry support from manufacturers, standards organizations, and repair providers. this is often important because it ensures that there is a high level of interoperability between devices of various manufacturers in different countries.

Disadvantages of Frame Relay

Although it carries data more efficiently because it’s no inherent error correction utilities, this lack of frame management is often detrimental. Frames are often errored due to transmission impairments within the network (i.e., a touch error corrupts a frame, which is then dropped by the network).

In Frame Relay, the error correction is left up to the user’s intelligent devices (i.e., a router), which may discover discrepancies and request a retransmission. additionally, the reliable deployment of technologies like T1, digital data service (DDS), and fiber optics decreases the necessity for error correction within the network.

Network problems can occur when subscribers exceed the Committed Information Rates. As previously mentioned, the Committed Information Rates is the amount of knowledge traffic, prescribed by the service provider and therefore the subscriber, the network is planned to support under normal network conditions.

When too many subscribers exceed the CIR then a situation may develop during which the network becomes congested and begins to drop frames to alleviate congestion.

For example, 20 banks are all connected to a frame relay network. During the day, they all transmit under their Committed Information Rates for routine electronic communication. At 2:00 p.m., however, all of those banks send their daily transactions to another location for processing, which causes network congestion.

If just one bank transmits over the CIR, network congestion probably won’t occur. it’s the mixture of many banks transmitting over their Committed Information Rates that causes congestion and dropped frames.

Their frames are variable in length; therefore, they cause variable delay within the network. For instance, a brief frame is often switched quickly by the Frame relay network. However, longer frames take longer to process and switch.

This creates a variable transit time between long and short frames. Integrated data, voice, and video applications cannot be delayed; therefore, these applications aren’t best suited to border relay. they’re better suited to integrated switched digital networks (ISDN) or cell relay technology, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

Conclusion:
Friends, from this post today, we learned what is Frame Relay? Why is the Frame Relay protocol used in the network and its features?

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