FTP-File Transfer Protocol, History, 5-Advantages, Disadvantages

You must have heard about the word FTP sometime, if you want to know about what is FTP and how it works then you must read this article.

Today, in this blog, we will give you complete information about the history of File Transfer Protocol, its advantages, disadvantages, etc. We hope that after reading this, you will get answers to all the questions arising in your mind about FTP.

What is File Transfer Protocol

The full form of FTP is File Transfer Protocol. It is used in network fields such as to transfer files from one computer to another computer.

File Transfer Protocol is a type of network protocol that defines a set of rules for sending and receiving files between two systems.

This protocol is a very old protocol and even today it is being used in network failure, despite this, there will be many internet users who will not yet know about this protocol, but if you are going to make a website then for you This can prove to be a very useful tool.

When the web developer creates a website, all the files of that website have to be uploaded to the network server and this protocol is used to do this work, which is to upload, download, rename large files to the server. Helps to delete, copy and move.

History of File Transfer Protocol

FTP was first developed by Abhay Bhushan in 1971 when he was studying at MIT.

First, it was used in the Arpanet I.e network control program to transfer files between servers and computers in a secure manner. NCP (before the beginning of the modern Internet).

After this, TCP/IP protocol ie Modern Internet was used in place of NCP. As changes took place on the Internet, so FTP was also updated.

At one point, some problems started appearing in the File transfer protocol connection of the security firewall installed in the computer. FTP was made firewall-friendly for which passive mode was added.

After making many changes, protocols like FTPS and SFTP were made for security reasons, due to which it has become more secure than before.

Advantages of File Transfer Protocol

  • Through this protocol, you can transfer two or more files in addition to multiple directories simultaneously without any hassle.
  • This protocol is known to transfer files at a faster rate, which is its biggest advantage.
  • If there is a connection loss while transferring data, then there is no need to worry, you can continue it later. If you want, you can also pause the data transfer in between and can also resume it later.
  • You can keep the file or directory transfer by schedule i.e. it will automatically do its work at your specified time.
  • The auto backup facility is also available on this protocol, which is a great thing.

Disadvantages of File Transfer Protocol

  • Not all FTP servers provide the facility of data encryption and it is not safe to transfer data without data encryption.
  • If your password is not strong then hackers can easily guess your password by creating different password combinations through brute force attack.

How is File Transfer Protocol used?

You can use the following three methods to upload files to the webserver through File Transfer Protocol:-

  • Command-line 
  • Web Browser
  • Graphical FTP Client 
Command-line - 

You must have used the command line at one time or another, all operating systems whether it is Windows, Linux, or Mac OS, all have some built-in commands for the file transfer protocol, which can be used to access FTP. can be connected to the site.

Web Browser -

You can also use any internet web browser, for this you have to type FTP:// instead of HTTP:// in the search bar, and along with this, you have to type in username and password in URL. The URL address on the browser will be something like this: ftp://username:password@ftp.website.org/

Graphical FTP Client -

You can also use a graphical client which is a type of application and whose interface is very user-friendly and easy. If you are using Windows then you can download the application named FileZilla for free from the internet.

How does File Transfer Protocol work?

Now we will know how FTP protocol works. For which first FTP client should be installed in the user’s system, along with it it is also necessary to have a username and password to establish a connection with the server.

FTP-file transfer protocol

FTP uses two types of connections to transfer files:-

  • Control Connection
  • Data Connection
Control Connection -

We use this to open or close the connection and send commands to the network server.

Data Connection -

After the connection is established, the process of file transfer between the client-server is done through the data connection.

When a control connection is started by a client on port number 21, then when the connection is established, commands are sent by the client and according to the command, the network server starts the data connection on port number 20, and for this data connection. Through this, it is possible to transfer files.

FTP can work in two different modes:-

  • Active Mode
  • Passive Mode
Active Mode -  
  • In Active mode, any client connects to port 21 of the FTP network server using any port number (greater than 1023) ie the control opens the connection.
  • After which the port number used by the client is told to the server on which the data connection is to be established.
  • Then after getting the port number specified by the client, the server opens the data connection from its port 20 to the port number of the client.
Passive Mode -
  • In Passive mode, when the client opens the command connection from any port number (greater than 1023) to port 21 of the FTP network server.
  • The FTP client command is able to tell the network server about the PASV command only through the connection.
  • File Transfer Protocol’s server tells its port number to the client with the same command connection.
  • On behalf of the File Transfer Protocol client, the connection of data is opened between the port number of the client and the port number specified by the network server.


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