What is the CPU? | 6 Main Functions of CPU In A Computer


In this blog, you are going to read about CPU (central processing unit) functions of CPU in a computer, components of CPU, and many other details. let’s start with a basic concept, What is the Central Processing Unit (CPU)?

CPU is the part of a computer that is known as the Brain of the computer. data processing and calculations are done by computer because of their CPU.

It is also named a processor or microprocessor. CPU is considered the most important part of any computer system.

It also gives power to the software to run easily on your desktop, the fast processing speed of any software shows the power of the CPU (Central Processing Unit).

Functions of CPU in a Computer

If you want to know about what functions are performed by a CPU then firstly ask yourself that, what is the Function of a brain?, “Exactly” CPU give commands to other parts of the computer, here are some functions of CPU in a computer.

  • The primary function of the central processing unit is to execute programs.
  • It takes information and processes them according to your instructions.
  • Calculations like Addition and subtraction, are also done with the help of the CPU.
  • It controls and gives commands to all Computer parts such as memory, input, and output devices.
  • Read data & instruction from the memory.
  • All data and instructions go through the central processing unit.

Importance of CPU

CPU is important for overall system performance, it plays a crucial role in the smooth working of all computer system, it helps the software and programs to work properly and smoothly.

But CPU is not everything that a system needs It doesn’t help in playing different types of games nor it can store information ( information is stored by memory) and that’s where Graphics card, memory, and other parts come into play.

But in the end, the CPU is most important for the processing of a computer.

Components of a CPU

In this topic of Functions of CPU in a Computer, you can read about Three types of Components and the functions of their components in the below para’s you are going to read about the components of a CPU and The Functions of CPU components.

  • Memory or storage unit
  • Control unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
Functions of CPU in a Computer

Memory or Storage Unit

Memory or storage unit also is known as primary storage or main memory, is a part of microcomputers that holds data for processing, instructions for processing the data (the program), and information (processed data).

Memory stores data as long as the computer is on. when you turned off the computer, the data are lost.

All computer arrives with a fixed amount of physical memory usually named as the main memory or the RAM.

You can think of the main memory as an array of boxes, each of which can hold a single byte of information.

A computer that has 1 MB of memory, therefore, can hold about 1 million bytes (or characters) of information.

Control Unit (CU)

The control unit tells the rest of the computers how to carry out a program’s instructions. it directs the movements of electronic signals between memory, which temporarily holds data, instructions, and processes information.

The Control unit manages all resources of the computer. The control unit is known as the logical hub of the computer.

The CPU’s instructions for carrying out commands are built into the control unit. The instructions, or the instructions set, list all the operations that the CPU can perform.

Each command in the instruction set is indicated in microcode- a series of basic directions that tell the CPU how to execute more complex or tricky operations.

The lowest- level commands that directly control a microprocessor is the Microcode. It also interacts with input and output devices for data transfer.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

In this topic of Functions of CPU in a Computer now you are going to read about Functions of ALU.

  • Arithmetic section: Arithmetic operations can do fundamental mathematical operations consisting of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
  • Logic section: logical operations consists of comparisons. that is two pieces of data are compared to see whether one is equal to, less than, or greater than the others.
Functions of CPU In A Computer

CPU Cooling

Processor chips generate little heat, which could cause the chip to burn up. Although the computer main fan-generated airflow, many of today’s personal computer processors require additional cooling. Heat sinks are used to help dissipate processor heat.

A heat sink is a small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and disperses heat produced by electrical components such as the processor.

Some heat sinks are packaged as a part of a processor chip others are installed on the top or the side of the chip.


After all, that information now comes to the conclusion that the CPU is important as our brain but there are some things that are also possible without  CPU like gaming and others but after that CPU is called the most important part of the Computer system.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
  1. Which part of the computer system is called the Brain of the Computer?

    CPU (central processing unit) is called the brain of the computer.

  2. Two components of CPU?

    CU (Control unit)
    ALU (Arithmetic logic unit)

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