Hello, Friends Welcome to our website in this we are going to talk about Guided media(Transmission medium), in this blog we cover all these topics-Twisted pair cables, coaxial cable, and optical fiber.
Guided media, Which are those that provide a conduit from one device to another, include twisted-pair-cable, coaxial cable, and optical fiber.
A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and contained by the physical limits of the medium.
Twisted pair cable and coaxial cable use metallic (copper) conductors that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current.
Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light.
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Advantages And Disadvantages of Guided Media
- The cost of guided media is very low (inexpensive) and easily available.
- This is very Flexible and Lightweight.
- Very easy to set up and install.
- Bandwidth is very low in guided media.
- Susceptible to interference and noise- (Noise is an electrical disturbance that can degrade communication)
Types of Guided Media
The most popular types of guided media are the following-
- Twisted pair cable
- Coaxial cable
- optical Fibre
These are the three types of guided media (transmission medium) and the full explanation of these types is given below, so if you want to know the full information take a look at the paragraphs below.
Twisted pair cable
Twisted pair cables consist of two insulated copper wires twisted together. Twisting grant each wire to have just about] the same noise environment.
Types of twisted pair cable
- Unshielded Twisted pair(UTP) cable
- Shielded Twisted pair(STP) cable
1. Unshielded Twisted pair(UTP) cable
Nowadays UTP cable is the most common type of telecommunication medium. Although most familiar with its use in the telephones system, its frequency range is suitable for transmitting both data and voice.
A twisted pair consists of two conductors(usually copper), is with its own colored plastic insulation.
The plastic insulation is color-banded for identification. colors are used both to recognize the specific conductors in a cable and to designate which wires belong in pairs and how they relate to other pairs in a larger bundle.
A twisted pair consists of two conductors is surrounded by an insulating material.
Advantages of Unshielded Twisted pair(UTP) cable
- widely used.
- supports many network types.
Disadvantages of Unshielded Twisted pair(UTP) cable
- Distance Limitation
- susceptible to interference
- prone to damage during installation
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2. Shielded Twisted pair(STP) cable
STP cable has a Metal foil or braided-mesh covering that encases each pair of the insulated conductors.
The metal casing prevents the penetration of electromagnetic noise. It also can eliminate a phenomenon called cross-talk, which is the undesired effect of one circuit (or channel) on other circuits (or channel).
It takes place when one line (acting as a kind of receiving antenna) picks up some of the signals traveling down another line (acting as a kind of sending antenna).
This effect can be felt during telephone discussions when one can hear other discussions in the background.
Advantages of shielded twisted pair(STP) cable
- Faster than UTP and Coaxial
Disadvantages of shielded twisted pair(STP) cable
- More expensive than UTP and coaxial
- Cause difficulty in Installation.
Coaxial cable (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair cable, in part because the two media are constructed quite differently.
Rather than having two wires, coax has a central core conductor of solid or standard wire (usually copper) surrounded in an Insulating sheath, which is, in turn, encased in an outer conductor of metal foil, braid, or a fusion of the two (also usually copper).
The outer metallic enfold serves both as a shield against noise and as the second conductor, Which completes the circuit.
This outer conductor is also surrounded by an insulating sheath, and the entire cable is secured by a plastic cover.
Advantages of Coaxial cables
- They are the most common means of data communication over short distances.
- Cheap to install
- Good Bandwidth
- Great channel capacity
Disadvantages of Coaxial cables
- Very expensive over long distances
- They do not support high-speed transmission, this is another disadvantage of coaxial cable.
Up until this point, we have discussed conductive (metal) cables that transmit signals in the form of current.
Optical fiber, on the other hand, is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light.
If we want to know and understand optical fiber, we first need to explore the nature of light.
Advantages of Optical fiber
- Noise resistance
- Less signal attenuation
- Higher bandwidth
Disadvantages of Optical fiber
- They are very expensive
- hard to install and maintained
- Fragility (easily broken)
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Also Read: Unguided Media in Computer Network