6 Main Parts of Computer And Their Functions- Edifyclue

Parts of Computer


Hello Friends, welcome to our website and today we are going to know about Parts of Computer And Their Functions, means for making a computer there are too many hardware components are used, and today you know about those hardware parts.

A computer system is made up of four components:

  • Hardware
  • Software or Program
  • Data that the computer converts into information
  • User or peoples

But in this topic, you are only going to know about Hardware system, the hardware refers to that part of the computer you can touch.

It made up of interconnected electronic devices that control everything the computer does. Many times peoples talk about computers, they basically mean the hardware.

In this topic of parts of Computer And Their Functions, you are reading about the parts, And all general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:

  • Motherboard – The motherboard, sometimes called a system board.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) or Processor – CPU or processor are mainly known as the “Brain” of a computer, This is the component that actually executes the instruction.
  • Memory – Memory enables a computer to store, data, and programs.
  • Mass storage device – These devices allow a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data.
  • Input device – An input device usually is a keyboard or a mouse.
  • Output device – Display or monitors are the main output device in computers.

Read more about input and output devices and Storage Devices.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions

Parts of Computer And Their Functions, in this heading you are going to read about, different types of functions performed by the different types of computer parts and how they are helpful for each other and become a great device for us.


The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system. many electronic components are attached to the motherboard; others are built into it. the motherboard contains the microprocessor, main memory, RAM or ROM support circuitry, bus controller, and connector.

Other boards, including expansion memory and input/output boards, may attach to the motherboard via the bus conductor.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions

Processor or CPU

In Parts of Computer And Their Functions, CPU or processor performs the complex procedure that transforms raw data into useful information is called processing. To perform this work, the computer uses two components- processor and memory.

The processor is like the brain of computers, that organizes all data in the computer and carries out the instruction that comes from either the user or the software.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions

In a personal computer, the processor consists of one or two microprocessors, which are silver of silicon or the other material etched with many tiny electronic circuits.

The microprocessor is plugged into the circuit board – a rigid rectangular card containing the circuitry that connects the processor to other hardware. The circuit board to which the processor connected is called the Motherboard.


In the Parts of Computer And Their Functions, Memory is the computers’ electronic scratchpad. programs are loaded into and run from memory.

Data used by programs are also loaded into the memory for fast success. RAM random access memory is the most common type of memory used worldwide.

The most important thing to remember about ram is that it is volatile, so it needed a constant supply of power.

When you turn off a computer, everything in the ram disappears. this is why you have to save everything you are working on to a storage device.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions
Random Access Memory RAM

One of the most important factors that affect the computer speed and power of a computer is the amount of RAM. generally, the more RAM a computer has, the computer can do many things at one time without lag.

Units of Memory

A byte (character) is the basic storage unit in memory when an application program instructions and data transfer into memory from the storage device, the instructions and data exist as a byte.

Each byte resides temporarily in a location in memory, called an address. An address is simply a unique number that identifies the location of the byte in memory.

Memory size Manufacturer state memory and storage sizes in terms of the number of bytes available within the device for storage.

  • Byte – One byte is one character, A character can be a number, letter, or symbol.
  • kilobyte – One Kilobyte is 1,024 characters, 1024 Bytes.
  • Megabyte – One megabyte is 1,048,576 Characters, 1024 Kilobyte.
  • Gigabyte – one Gigabyte is 1,073,741,824 characters, 1024 Megabyte.
  • Terabyte – One terabyte is 1,099,511,627,776 characters, 1024 Gigabyte.

Storage Devices

In this topic of Parts of Computer And Their Functions, The purpose of storage devices is to hold the program and data files when the computer is not using them. Storage devices are different from memory (RAM) in many ways.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions

First, the storage devices are non-volatile, the data or program stored in the storage devices will not be lost even if the power fails.

Second, the capacity of storage devices is much higher, for example, a high-end personal computer will usually have 2 or 4 GB of RAM but the capacity of storage devices will usually be 80 to 100 GB.

Third, the storage devices are cheaper than memory for example the cost of 4GB of RAM or 500 GB of the hard disk will be almost the same.

Input Devices

The computer receives instructions from the user through the input devices. The most common types of input devices are keyboard.

The keyboard accepts letters, numbers, and special characters and commands from the user and transmit them to the computer.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions

there are some types of input devices are mouse, microphone, joystick, digital cameras, scanner, etc.

Output Device

In this topic of Parts of Computer And Their Functions, The computer communicates with the user via output devices.

The function of the output device is to present process data to the user. The most common device are Monitors, printers, and speakers.

The computer sends information to the monitor only when the user needs that. It sends the output to the printer when the user needs a paper copy and etc functions are performed by the output devices.

Parts of Computer And Their Functions

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

6 Main parts of the computer.

CPU (Central Processing Unit) or Processor
storage device
Input device
Output device

Units of Memory.

Byte – One byte is one character, A character can be a number, letter, or symbol.
kilobyte – 1024 Bytes.
Megabyte – 1024 Kilobyte.
Gigabyte   1024 Megabyte.
Terabyte –  1024 Gigabyte.

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