Application Layer | Functions, Applications, And Their Protocols

What is Application Layer The application layer is the topmost layer of open service interconnection OSI and TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol) layered model layers. This is the layer that directly communicates with the user or user application. It is very important to have this layer for all the applications coming into the communication system. … Read more

Physical layer | Characteristics, Functions, and Examples

physical layer

The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection Model). It establishes wired and wireless connections with the hardware of various computers connected to the network as well as transfers all the information from one machine to another in the form of signals. The physical layer receives data, information, or … Read more

data link layer | functions of data link layer

The Data Link Layer is the sixth layer from the upper layer of the OSI model. Its responsibility is to transmit data within a physical network. Such as the transmission of data between two computer systems. It is considered to be the most reliable system for transporting data from one node to another. It is … Read more

Network Layer


The network layer is the fifth layer above the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model that controls the operation of the subnet. It manages settings and options related to:- Network addressing, sub-networks, and Inter-working The network layer is responsible for routing data packages running inside or outside the subnet from source to destination. Two different subnets … Read more

Transport Layer|transport layer protocols

The transport layer is the fourth layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. In this layer, all the modules and processes for transporting/transmission of the data have been put under this layer. The transport layer establishes a connection with a distant network host. The transport layer establishes an end-to-end or peer-to-peer secure connection between … Read more

Presentation Layer | Functions and Advantages

Presentation Layer As we know, the OSI model layer has 7 layers and it is number 6 in layers. It is the layer between the application layer and the session layer and its function is to access all the information coming from the session layer. After checking its accuracy, then after defining it well, all … Read more

What is Frame Relay | 2 layers, Advantages, and Disadvantages?


Friends, during this post today, we’ll know what is Frame Relay? How does it work-study its advantages and drawbacks and discuss the concepts? Frame Relay This is a wide area network (WAN) protocol that works on Layer 1 and Layer 2 of the open system interconnection (OSI Model). In this, the value is reduced by … Read more

OSI model layers | 7 Types of OSI Model | Edifyclue

The international standard organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to a worldwide agreement on international standards. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection OSI model layers. An open system may be a model that permits any two different systems to speak no matter their underlying architecture. … Read more