Today we will tell you about What is DHCP in this blog and will try to explain its working, advantages, and configuration as well, you read it completely, you will understand it easily. So let’s start:-
What Is DHCP
The full form of DHCP is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a network protocol used to automatically set the host to the IP address on the network. This host sets an IP address so that they can communicate with each other.
DHCP can be applied to large networks as well as local networks. DHCP is a default protocol used mostly on all routers and other network devices. DHCP is also known as RFC (Request for Comments) 2131.
If a host wants to communicate with another host in any network, then for this it must have a unique IP address.
DHCP protocol, you can manually configure this IP address on each host’s computer. If the network is very large then this method will not work. In large networks, you cannot manually assign IP addresses by going to every host. DHCP is used to solve this problem.
The job of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is to assign IP addresses to all hosts. These IP addresses are assigned automatically.
DHCP is a client/server protocol. port number 67. The main job of DHCP is to provide an IP address for the host. But it provides many host information in addition to the IP address.
Such general information is given below:-
- IP address (Ex – 18.104.22.168)
- Subnet Mask (Ex – 244.244.0.0)
- Domain Name (Ex – www.edifyclue.com)
- Default Gateway (Ex. 10.0.0.0.1)
- DNS Server Address
Advantages of DHCP
Following are its advantages:-
- Due to the introduction of DHCP protocol, the chances of errors in IP address configuration are greatly reduced.
- By using this protocol, you do not need to manage the list of IP addresses, and at the same time you do not have to manage which IP address is free and which has been assigned. . DHCP does this work automatically.
- If you move the host to another network, DHCP assigns it a new IP address.
- Adding new customers to the network becomes very easy.
- Can be re-used with one IP address, requiring fewer IP addresses.
- It is easy to apply and use.
- It supports such scope:- Multicast Scope, Super Scope, etc.
Disadvantages of DHCP
Following are its Disadvantages:-
- Its biggest disadvantage is about its security because there is no special mechanism in it to keep the client safe.
- Sometimes it happens that while assigning IP addresses to hosts, there may be conflict between IP addresses.
- In this it is difficult to trace the activities happening on the internet.
Components of DHCP
The components of DHCP are given below:-
- DHCP Server:– DHCP server is a network device that is used to store IP addresses and other information. It is a kind of server or router that works like a host key.
- DHCP Client:– This is a device that retrieves the information configured from the DHCP server. And this device can also be mobile, computer, and another device.
- IP Address Pool:– As you know there is a limited range of IP addresses that are available to DHCP clients. IP addresses are assigned in order from lowest to highest.
- Subnet:– The IP network is divided into two or more segments, which are called subnets. The subnet is easily managed by a network
- Lease:– This is a time in which the DHCP client keeps the information of all IP addresses on hold. When the lease expires, the DHCP client has to renew it.
- DHCP Relay:– This is a TCP/IP host that advances DHCP messages to clients and servers.
How does DHCP Works?
- First, the client broadcasts the message to the available servers. It is used to find a DHCP server on the messaging network.
- After accepting this message the server sends a bidding message to the client. The quote messages show themselves (presence) to the server.
- This client then transmits the request message to another IP address and information to the client.
- The server then sends the information along with the unicast validation message.
The DHCP server has an important role on any network. The DHCP server can be configured on any route or switch. If you configure the DHCP server you should have the information below:-
- You must have a network ID.
- You also need to know what are the addresses that are already being used.
- You should also know the address of the default router of the network.
- You must also know the network address of the DNS (Domain Name System) server.
You have just been told about some information that is required to configure any DHCP server. Below are some steps for how to configure the DHCP server. You can easily configure DHCP by following these steps:-
- First you have access to this address (excluded) that has been used or provided for other purposes.
- You then create a subnet in the pool with a unique name.
- You will then use it to set the IP address on the server, the host, which sets the network ID and subnet mask.
- You then set the address to the default gateway.
- After setting this DNS server address is set.
- If you don’t want to use rental time, you can set rental time on days, hours and minutes.
Below is an example of DHCP configuration:-
router(config)#ip DHCP excluded-address 192.168.16.1 192.168.16.10
router(config)#ip DHCP pool edifyclue
router (DHCP-config)#network 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0
router (DHCP-config)#default-router 192.168.10.1
router (DHCP-config)#dns-server 22.214.171.124
router (DHCP-config)#lease 2 15 2
See the example above see the network ID and the first broadcast address is excluded. After this, a pool is created on behalf of edifyclue. After this, the network and subnet mask is defined.
The network is defined by the ID. After defining the default gateway and DNS server. Finally, the rental timing is fixed. The default lease time is 24 hours. But if you want to change it you can.
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