Friends, during this post today, we’ll know what is TCP/IP? How does it work-study its advantages and disadvantage and discuss the concepts behind the TCP/IP?
What is TCP/IP
Internet Protocol (IP) is a system of accessing the Internet and performs the main function of delivering packets of information from a source device to a target device.
This IP is a way in which multiple connections are made to the network, and it establishes the basis of the Internet.
IP is not used to handle packet ordering or error checking. Such functionality usually requires another protocol, such as TCP.
TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices over the Internet. TCP IP is also used as a communication protocol in computers or other network equipment (an intranet or an extranet).
Internet Protocol Suite – a set of rules and procedures – commonly referred to as TCP/IP. This TCP and IP are two other main protocols, although it is included in other suites. The TCP/IP protocol suite serves as an abstraction layer between Internet applications and the routing / switching fabric.
TCP/IP specifies how data is exchanged over the Internet by providing end-to-end communication and identifies how it should be broken into packets, addressed, transmitted, routed, and Must receive at the destination. TCP/IP requires little central management and is able to be reliable on the network, with the ability to automatically recover from the failure of any network devices on the networks.
Internet Protocol has two main protocol-specific functions. TCP defines how applications in a network can create channels of communication and it also shows how any message is gathered into small packets before those networks are transmitted over the Internet. And are assembled in the correct order at the destination address.
The IP defines the network to determine how it addresses and routes each packet to reach its correct destination. Each gateway computer on the network checks this IP address to read the message. In this way, we read the message carefully find.
A subnet mask is a network that tells the computer, or any other network device, which address of the IP network is used to represent the network, and which parts represent the host (another computer) on the network. Is used.
A Network Address Translator (NAT) is the virtualization of Internet Protocol addresses. NAT helps improve security and decrease the number of IP addresses an organization needs.
Common protocols for TCP/IP include the following:-
- HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)- handles the synchronization (communication) between a web server and a web browser.
- HTTPS (Secure HTTP)- handles security communication between a web server and a web browser.
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol)- handles the transmission of files between two computers.
How TCP/IP works
- TCP/IP uses a client-server model for transmission (communication) in which service (such as sending a webpage) is provided by another computer network (a server) in a user or machine (a client) network.
- Collectively, the TCP/IP suite of protocols is assessed as stateless, which suggests each client request is taken into account new because it’s unrelated to previous requests. Being stateless frees up network paths so they can be used continuously.
- However, it propagates a single transmission (message), and its connection network remains in place until all packets of messages are received and retrieved at the destination.
- The TCP / IP model and the seven-layer Open System Interconnection (OSI) differ slightly from the model of networking, which is then designed to the TCP/IP model. The OSI reference model defines how applications can communicate over the network.
TCP/IP model layers
TCP/IP functionality is divided into four layers, each of which includes specific protocols:-
- The application layer:- Provides applications with a standardized data exchange. The application layer includes several protocols such as HTTP, FTP, (POP3) Post Office Protocol3, (SMTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). At the application layer, the payload is the real application data.
- The transport layer:- Is meant to maintain the end-to-end transmission (communication) of the network protocol. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) handles communication (Transmission) between hosts and provides flow control, multiplexing, and reliability. Transport network protocols include TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which are sometimes used instead of TCP for special purposes.
- The network layer:- Also known as the Internet layer, relates to network layer packets and it connects independent networks to carry packets across network boundaries. Internet Layer Protocol This is the IP and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), used for error reporting.
- The physical layer:- Also known as the network interface layer or data link layer, consists of protocols that operate on only one link – the network component that interconnects nodes or hosts in the network. Protocols for this lowest layer include Ethernet for Local Area Network (LAN) and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
Difference between TCP/IP and OSI Model
|TCP stands for transmission control protocol||OSI stands for open system interconnection|
|TCP/IP has four layers||OSI has seven layers|
|TCP/IP is more relaible||OSI is less reliable|
|TCP/IP does not have very strict boundaries||OSI has strict boundaries|
|TCP/IP follows as a horizontal approach||OSI follows a vertical approach|
|TCP/IP uses both session layer and presentation layer in the application layer itself||OSI uses a different session layer and application layers|
|TCP/IP developed protocols then model||OSI developed protocols then model|
|The transport layer in the TCP/IP does not provide assurance delivery of packets||In the OSI model, the transport layer provides assurance delivery of packets|
|TCP/IP model network layer only provides connectionless services||Connectionless and connection-oriented both services are provided by the network layer in OSI model|
|protocols cannot be replaced easily in the TCP/IP model||While in the OSI model, protocols are better covered and are easy to replace with the change in the technology|
Advantages of TCP/IP
Its benefits are as follows:-
- It helps us a lot to establish network connections in different types of computers.
- It works independently of the operating system (OS).
- It supports many network routing protocols.
- It is a very scalable client-server architecture.
- It works independently.
- It is an open protocol suite. That is, it does not belong to any one company, so any person, the company can use it.
Disadvantages of TCP/IP
Its disadvantages are as follows:-
- It is a complicated model so it is a bit difficult to set up and manage.
- The transport layer does not guarantee the delivery of packets.
- It is not easy to replace protocols.
- It does not separate the concept of services, interfaces, and protocols, therefore it is not suitable to describe it in new technology.
- It was designed for a wide area network (WAN). It has not been optimized for LAN (local area network) and personal area network (PAN).
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